SpaceX launch heralds a new age of inexpensive space travel

 

On February 6, 2018 one of the most significant events in human history took place with the launch of SpaceX’s Falcon Heavy rocket, which sent a Tesla vehicle on a trajectory towards Mars. The low cost and reusability of the Falcon Heavy space shuttle heralds an age of inexpensive space flight and colonization potential. Tuesday’s mission cost $90 million, $15 million less than New York City’s 2018 budget for student physical education.

Mars is nearby and can be reached in a relatively short period of time. Every 1.6 years Earth and Mars reach a point at which their proximity is maximum. During this time the trip might take 260 days or less. It has the kinds of things humans need to survive, like oxygen, water and nitrogen. The Mars Oxygen ISRU Experiment (MOXIE) is designed to convert carbon dioxide from the atmosphere on Mars into oxygen for fuel and life support. MOXIE will be travelling to Mars on NASA’s 2020 mission. It will be the first oxygen-production plant of its kind to travel to another planet.

Robots can build habitats for humans to live in on Mars and early pioneers can have the essentials needed to begin life on another planet. 

It seems inexpensive and easy. So much so, that it would not be surprising to see a colony on Mars ten years from now. SpaceX is a corporation which constructed the rockets used in yesterday’s launch, with $0 from the US or any other government. It’s exciting to see how this innovative technology can help us place useful platforms in space near earth inexpensively, helping improve transportation, exploration, telecommunications, weather monitoring, and potentially, weather control.

With all the horrible weather events which have taken place this last year, it’s a relief to see this brilliant technology move humanity forward, realizing new potential which only moments ago was science fiction.  The SpaceX launch heralds a new age where space travel will be a part of many of our lives.

by Linda Kaidan

Tufts University Invents Technology that Will End Climate Change

 

The technology that will end climate change has been developed at Tufts University in Massachusetts. It extracts CO2 from the atmosphere and converts it to a liquid form, methanol. It is based on research published last year at USC,  and builds upon a less clean practice developed by a team in Iceland. Methanol can be used to create renewable fossil fuel that can be burned – polluting the air, sucked out of the atmosphere again and then recycled. Using it this way means that in a sense we can have our cake and eat it too, using the same fuel over and over again, rather than constantly adding new green house gasses to our overburdened atmosphere.

That doesn’t mean we should continue to use fossil fuels. Certainly solar, wind and hydro power are much nicer. Methanol can be used in many excellent ways. We currently rely on Methanol to produce silicone, plastic water bottles, car parts, fleece jackets and some pharmaceuticals. Perhaps we’ll be able to use methanol for 3-D printer ink to make plastic objects we design on our computers.

One of the most versatile materials that can be made from methanol is polyester. It can be the basis for manufacturing many types of fiber for use in clothing, bedding, carpets, tents, upholstery and insulation. It’s water resistant too. Re-purposed methanol can help us make our homes comfortable while keeping the air we breath clean!

How long will it take to get levels of CO2 back down to normal? That’s for someone else to answer, but the sooner the better! Because, there is more CO2 in the air now than there has been in 50 million years and that’s not a situation we can live with.

Since we now have the opportunity to reverse the destructive process that has harmed so much of our planet, we can be optimistic about the future. However, the cleanup may take many years. We can expect more horrible weather including high winds and must be intelligent about growing food locally in our homes and communities.

By Linda Kaidan

Self-taught Inventors – You Can Be One!

 

Important self-taught inventors who did not complete elementary school

Self Taught Inventors

In the left photo is Thomas Edison, whose formal education ended after 3 months, discouraged by his teacher who said he was not very smart. In the right photo is Pay Bok Sing, an innovative seafood farmer who has a fourth-grade education. Edison is most famous for his invention of the incandescent light bulb, the mainstay of lighting for over a century. He also invented the phonograph and made the very first movies.

Pay Bok Sing, like Edison is self-educated. His schooling ended in 4th grade. With the help of his own curiosity and YouTube, he taught himself how to create ocean water for inland seafood farming and feed for his fish crop. His inventions may become the foundation of sustainable, local based farming, providing secure food in the communities where we live.

Teaching ourselves we can all become inventors

In the US, public education often succeeds in creating endless crops of students who think they hate learning, demotivated by teachers who limit their intellectual exploration rather than encourage creative thought. But were students to partake of the enormous potential provided by free online learning through YouTube and other web channels, they could explore their own abilities, and be inventors and thought leaders. In fact, farming in our own homes and back yards can provide all of us with inexpensive laboratories for learning about food science–a science that can help feed people in times of climate uncertainty and economic instability.

There’s no need to take expensive courses. Just follow some basic instruction from YouTube and learn how to raise fish in your basement and tomatoes and lettuce in your own kitchen. The more you learn, the more you’ll be able to discover for yourself. Each and every one of us can be an inventor!

Use a tomato, soil and a pot to start😊

Linda Kaidan

compete with robot furniture – Two rooms in one for less

It’s easy to compete with robot furniture

Designers and engineers are working on user-friendly ways to live in smaller spaces. Robotic furniture that moves with gestures is now being created. We can see from this video that the results are impressive. Yet they are likely to be costly, at least in the beginning. For now, there are easier ways to create flexible, multiple purpose rooms that are simple to reconfigure at a very low price.

Living room and bedroom in one that you can take camping

Pretty soon, engineered mobile systems developed at MIT will bring this new furniture technolgy into our homes. But until then, we can benefit by the ideas of multi-use space saving flexibility. Here are my ideas on a simple way to achieve this goal and provide almost the same flexibility at MUCH LOWER PRICE.

Behold, this queen bed frame is so sturdy it can support us

It only costs $97 on Amazon Prime and can be deconstructed into 2 31 x 75 inch flat and lightweight pieces that are easy to store and to move through the narrowest hallways.

What’s better is – the queen frame can be separated into 2 cot sized beds or 2 backless sofa bases. Just add a nice foam mattress and cover and you can have:

  • an L shaped sofa
  • 2 narrow full length twin beds
  • a queen size bed
  • 2 backless chairs

That’s not all! With this mattress (which I have not yet tried) the folded mode allows you to create a backless seat. You can also take it on a camping trip for luxurious comfort.

AMAZING! Total price for bed frames, 2 mattresses and delivery on Amazon Prime is $300 (queen (2 31 ix 75 inch) frame + 2 33 x 75 inch fold up mattresses). The biggest bonus is that you can make one room into two with no construction what so ever.

BTW – I am not selling this furniture.

by Linda Kaidan

 

 

Google changes thought patterns

Google changes thought patterns – are we becoming smarter or stupider?

There’s evidence that information gathering via Internet search has altered human cognitive behavioral function in the areas of information processing, reward processing and control. Being able to search rapidly and widely for a solution increases the ability and speed with which critical problems can be solved, in a way impossible before the Internet. It seems that now we work smarter than ever before.

The Internet aids those with unimpaired and impaired memory alike

Accessing Internet resources like Google can serve as memory support for those who have some impairment, as well as those who don’t. It’s changed the doctor patient relationship and the treatment process for the better.  Search engines can help those with faulty memory by reducing their need to store facts and extraneous data in their heads (Kennedy, 2015).

Education in Medicine notes that doctors should effectively use Internet resources available to them. Medicine works better when both patients and doctors read and analyze new data. Patients who have firsthand familiarity with their problems can often bring important research they have uncovered to their doctors, aiding in both diagnosis and treatment. When dealing with illness and many other problems that need to be solved, we’re seeking to identify both cause and solution.

Google changes thought patterns – an evolutionary enhancement

Man has evolved over the last 200,000 years, learning how to find food and shelter more effectively with tools. In the process, we have participated in ever evolving oral and written communication.  Moving from nomadic cultures to living in agrarian and technical societies, we have become more knowledgeable and more effective. Each step of the way, we’ve increased our skills, organizational function and cultural abilities, learning to create structures of abstract and physical nature to aid us in better living. Google is part of that ability structure and perhaps a far more powerful tool than any ever used before in the history of man.

Google is far more than the acquisition of shallow information or a quick fix for a lazy or defective memory. It can give every one of us the ability to have the best education available anywhere and one that is specifically tailored to our interests and needs. Knowledge is power and in Google we find a magnificent intellectual tool that can empower us as individuals and as a worldwide collective. If the downside is a tiny bit of Internet addiction that can be fixed with reeducation like Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, so be it.  Multitasking enabled by Google’s search engine is a different, more effective way of doing things, not an impediment to cognition. Google succeeds brilliantly in their global mission to organize the world’s information and make it universally accessible.

by Linda Kaidan

 

 

 

Drones can see you anytime

by Linda Kaidan

What are drones and what do they mean to you?

A drone is an unpiloted aircraft vehicle so there is no human pilot onboard. A flight can be controlled remotely or it can operate with the guidance of an on board computer controlled system.  Recent laws require those who operate them to have a license but there are few restrictions on who can operate them and on what they can fly over. Drones can see you and can be operated by individuals, companies, public and private organizations. Most drones are equipped with cameras that can photograph day and night. Some are equipped with 3 D cameras that can create 3 D models of surface features.

What can drones see?

Though drones may be so high in the sky that you can’t see them, they may very well see you. Two nights ago I witnessed our first neighborhood drones. There were three blinking off and on against the night sky. Though you may not have heard of them, surveillance drones have been around for quite a while. Click here for a video of a 2011 hummingbird surveillance drone.

Dronezone has a wide variety of drones for sale. Some feature GPS, autopilot and aerial photography options. An auto-piloted drone takes aerial photos and video of far superior capability than any pilot can.

What can a drone do?

It can identify images at precise locations for use in 3 D mapping. Having a drone with a GPS autopilot flight system and camera is essential for aerial photogrammetry, 3 d mapping and multispectral imaging. That includes infrared. So night flying drones can see too. Drones can be used for crop monitoring and site surveillance so keep in mind that day and night drones may be watching you

Remember that drones can see you whether they are launched by the government, the police, a stranger or a nosy neighbor. They can be looking at you from the sky at any time and even if you don’t see them, they may very well be able to see you.

Evolution of data and data analysis: A geographer’s perspective

 

By Linda Kaidan

How has our technology evolved from basic data concepts to big-data concepts in just 60 years?

Examining the history of data evolution and Geographic Information Systems is an excellent way to understand the progress of data storage, management and data analysis as a whole. In the beginning data was stored as written records on paper. Throughout history maps have been significant in navigation as they continue to be today. In the 1950’s slide rules and mechanical calculators were commonly used for calculations. Many mapping applications were completed by teams of mathematicians performing spatial and geodetic analysis that today is being accomplished in microseconds.

In the 1950s, maps were simple. They had their place in vehicle routing, new development planning and locating points of interest. Early mapping did not have the advantage of computers. However, satellite and aircraft systems were early uses of computer technology. In the 1950’s a self-contained dead reckoning system was developed by government contractors. The first space programmers developed a navigation system that could function without external references. US government contracting companies engineered inertial commercial navigation systems in the 1970s. They were capable of computing present position, distance to waypoints, direction and heading without navigation input employing onboard self-contained systems (Wyatt).

Digital Equipment Corporation built the first user friendly computer in 1959, the PDP 1. They introduced the PDP-11/70 in 1975.  It was used to integrate satellite-derived data and imagery from remote sensing. It supported stereographic image analysis, aircraft sensor data and data analysis. In 1972 The Defense Mapping Agency began providing mapping, charting, and geodetic information in paper and electronic format to the US Defense Department (US Government Publishing Office).

ARC INFO offered a GIS system with a graphical user interface for desktop computers. ARC refers to line segments of map elements. Info refers to data stored in an information system. The first microcomputer based geographic information system was released in 1982. ArcView provided a PC based environment supporting a basic geospatial model. Geo-referencing mapped world geographic coordinate systems to digital map elements.

Data representation featured vector models of points lines and polygons mapped to georeferenced X, Y coordinates. Topological models were used to relate map elements to each other. Spaghetti models connected independent map elements layering them atop one another. Raster models store data that varies continuously such as aerial or satellite acquired surface imagery.

As early as the 1980’s ARC GIS systems have been put to use to map municipality data in layers of substructures. Municipalities maintain control of information regarding public utilities like water, electric and sewer operations and detailed location of buildings and other structures. Whenever excavations are made the dig safe program retrieves data from Municipal GIS systems to ensure that electrical lines, gas lines and other buried infrastructures are not damaged in the process.

ArcGIS stores data in proprietary files. They also used ORACLE’s relational database system. Unlike many technology companies which have fallen by the wayside, ArcGIS is available today as a cloud based software as a service (ARCGIS.COM). Today’s ARCGIS provides industry support to utilities by making GIS system design affordable to cooperatives and municipalities with limited budgets using data model templates for project implementation (EIS.COM).

Open source Geographic Information Systems data is available to all. This includes Landsat satellite imagery and Tiger Data. ArcGIS Online stores massive amounts of spatial data. GIS software is being developed using open source collaborative efforts and is available to the public free of charge (ERSI.COM).

ORACLE is the second largest software company in the world. It began offering the first database software employing highly structured relational modeling for data storage retrieval and analysis. Though nearly 40 years have now gone by since the company’s inception in 1977, ORACLE’s RDBMS is the most widely used RDBMS in the world.

Well-structured data based on relational modeling is essential for organizations like financial institutions including banks, consumer based organizations, and medical research companies. It will likely continue to be valuable for a very long time to come. However, with our ever increasing capacity to create, access and store data, what is popularly called Big Data is an ever growing and every increasingly important source of information.

Big Data can be well structured just as data stored in a relational database or unstructured like that found in a periodical, research paper or essay. Data can be stored in a user defined self-referential structures such as that supported by JSON or XML.

Where does Big Data come from? It may come from sensors in manufacturing facilities, elevator banks in the World Trade Center or from automated, self-contained agriculture facilities in isolated areas. It may even come from biometric data collected by sensors on our bodies. Mining and manufacturing operations monitor production and distribution processes with sensors. That data can provide real-time quality control and predict when maintenance is necessary as well as when malfunctions occur. The result is less down time and greater efficiency. When used properly, Big Data can answer important questions relating to safety, quality, efficiency and market trends.

Big Data can be analyzed in real time as it streams or after collection. Data Analytics is a relatively new science offering techniques to glean the most from ever increasing volumes of data. ORACLE defines Big Data by referencing:

  • Volume of data processed which can reach into the petabytes (1000 terabytes)
  • Velocity – the rate at which data is received and acted upon
  • Value – an ongoing discovery process fueled by business executives and analysts.  Determining value is a function of asking the right questions, identifying patterns, making perceptive assumptions, and predicting behavior.

Data Representation Structured Versus Unstructured

Files, Relational Models, Self-Defined and Unstructured Data all contribute to how data can be represented and stored. Commercial and scientific software often use proprietary product based files to store data. Photoshop uses PSD files, DOCX is a file format for MS Word and standard image formats include jpg and png.

Relational data is modeled and stored in relational databases like MySQL, SQLSERVER and ORACLE. Relational data is based on relational mathematics for data set mapping developed by Edgar F. Codd in the 1970’s.  Such databases are sets of normalized data organized by tables, records and columns. There are well defined relationships between database tables. Relational structures support communication, sharing, search ability, organization and reporting. Structured Query Language called SQL, offers easy access to data from programs and scripts (Techopedia).

Unstructured data may be impossible to fit into an RDBMS. Such data often originates in mobile, social, and cloud computing data feeds. Some estimates agree that 90 percent of the data that exists now was created in the last two years and most of this information is unstructured. Unstructured databases like NoSQL and Hadoop offer the opportunity to capture, store and analyze vast resources of unstructured data as it is generated and to use it for business intelligence.

XML data is a data format that supports both data and a definition of that data’s structure. That means it’s self-defining. XML format can be used by any individuals or organizations that want to share data in a consistent way and in a format that they define and choose. Clusterpoint Server is database software for high-speed storage and large-scale processing of XML and JSON data on commodity hardware clusters. It works as a schema free document-oriented DBMS platform with an open source API. Clusterpoint supports immediate search and access to billions of documents and fast analytics operating on structured and unstructured data.

JSON stands for JavaScript Object Notation. It is an easily readable and usable data-interchange format that machines can parse and humans can read and understand.  It is defined as a portion of JavaScript Programming Language, Standard ECMA-262.

Conclusion

Our ongoing data evolution began in the 50’s. We maximized its use to do amazing things like sending satellites to space and using those satellites to acquire and transmit geospatial information and meteorological information. As time has gone by, each generation of technologists has built upon the work of the last. We’ve created library upon library of mathematical functions, utilities and models that allow us to build systems that are more specialized, inclusive and integrated. We’ve created an amazing toolbox of wonders that will continue to grow as long as we do.  We have not only expanded our data and data analysis resources, we have new open source opportunities that allow us to share our data technology and further accelerate our learning process.

In such a short period of time we’ve become capable of monitoring and analyzing the oceans, climate, forest fires, epidemics, seismic events and financial catastrophes.  We’ve just recently heard about new quantum computers which are not binary but based on state. This multi-state structure supports more adaptable algorithms and enables us to solve problems millions of times faster, leading to solutions to previously insoluble problems. We’ve done all of this in just 60 years.

One challenge for the future will be to manage this ever increasing information torrent and to uncover some way to find and make use of everything we seek to discover. At the same time Big Data increases threats to both personal and corporate privacy. With every click of our mouse we give up information to parties unknown.

Linda Kaidan was a Principal Software Developer at Oracle Corporation. She’s also developed public utilities software at IBM and was a senior software design engineer at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Kaidan has a BA in Geography from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and an MS in Computer Science from American University. Early in her career, she worked as a cartographer at the National Geospatial Intelligence Agency. Kaidan is the author of Surviving Climate Change: Decide to Live.

 

References

ARCGIS. Introduction to ARCGIS software. Retrieved from https://www.wou.edu/las/physci/taylor/es341/arcGIS_intro.pdf

bigdata-madesimple.com. A Deep Dive into NOSQL. Retrieved from http://bigdata-madesimple.com/a-deep-dive-into-nosql-a-complete-list-of-nosql-databases/

ERSI. GIS for Municipalities. Retrieved from. https://www.esri.com/~/media/Files/Pdfs/library/brochures/pdfs/gis-for-municipalities.pdf

GIS Geography. Landsat satellite imagery. Retrieved from http://gisgeography.com/usgs-earth-explorer-download-free-landsat-imagery/

JSON.org. Java Script Notation. Retrieved from http://www.json.org/fatfree.html

ORACLE. What is Big Data? Retrieved from https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwiWxdj6zcHOAhUD8CYKHSFRAo4QFghGMAA&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.oracle.com%2Fbig-data%2F&usg=AFQjCNHEV30BwI3YrV3vtFymuVgqUUN9YQ&sig2=OQ9yGH9qyGiLXbPnOD_XAg

Porter, Claire. Little privacy in the age of big data. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2014/jun/20/little-privacy-in-the-age-of-big-data

Techopedia. Relational Database (RDB). Retrieved from https://www.techopedia.com/definition/1234/relational-database-rdb

United States Government Publishing Office.  Defense Mapping Agency. Retrieved from https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/GOVMAN-1996-05-31/pdf/GOVMAN-1996-05-31-Pg233.pdf

Wyatt, David. Aircraft Flight Instruments and Guidance Systems.

Stop Our Runaway Global Warming Emergency Now

by Linda Kaidan

Runaway Gloabal Warming Emergency
Temperature rate of increase means time for emergency measures

Time is running out to control runaway global warming. Most humans will die when the temperature reaches a very humid 140 F. It takes only one day of peak temperature above the line of survivability to kill almost all life in an affected area.

There are solutions, but we need to begin applying them now.

Scary NOAA data reveals that while New York State’s average max temperature increased just 1-2 degrees during the 20th century, its average temperature from 2011 to 2014 was 2-4 degrees above the 20th century average.

Flee to Alaska? Not a wise choice

Alaska’s temperature increase is double that of the rest of the United States. Average annual temperatures in Alaska are likely to increase by 2°F to 4°F in the next 34 years. If global emissions continue increasing as they have been, temperature increases of 10°F to 12°F are anticipated by 2100. Heat kills directly by hyperthermia when it becomes too hot for a living organism to function. It kills indirectly by ocean floods resulting from polar melting, and the spread of disease from heat-driven pest population increases.

Hyperthermia – In 2003 14,802 residents of France died from temperatures of 104 degrees. Most were elderly. France is an economically secure and technologically advanced country, yet people were taken by surprise. People were just unprepared for the sudden extreme temperature highs.

Rising Oceans – In 2012 a mother, father and teenage daughter were swept out of the second floor of their Staten Island, New York home by rising ocean waters. Only the mother survived. Tropical Storm Sandy brought devastating coastal flooding to the east coast. Most of Sandy’s deaths were from drowning.

Pest population increases – The current Zika epidemic may be related to global warming. A number of devastating diseases are spread by mosquitos. Mosquito populations soar when it’s very hot. Malaria and Lyme disease are also spread by insects.

Geoengineering to the rescue?

Temperature rate of increase means time for emergency measures

Geoengineering offers emergency measures to stop global warming cold. There are two basic approaches. The first is to remove greenhouse gases from the environment – possibly using systems of atmospheric filters. The second is to prevent solar radiation from heating up Earth’s atmosphere, possibly using solar space shades. NASA describes these geoengineering techniques as risky, but even riskier is leaving temperatures to soar out of control and kill us all.

NASA recommends geoengineering as a near-term strategy for slowing global warming of our atmosphere and oceans and helping ensure humanity’s survival. Immediate implementation of such emergency measures may well save billions of plant, animal and human lives. But we have to act now!

Tiny new satellites can guaranty that we will not all die from global warming

by Linda Kaidan

Tiny new satellites or Nanosatellites halt global warming
NASA Nanosatellite Cube Launcher 2013

Tiny new satellites are being developed at MIT’s Space Propulsion Laboratory. This breakthrough technology can support the delivery of solar shades in space to prevent earth’s atmosphere from continuously heating up.  With advances in nanotech, satellites can be as tiny as half an inch cubed. The tininess is important as it makes the cost of launching the them comparatively small.

Tiny new satellites called nanosatellites are a foundation technology for global warming prevention

This emerging generation of satellites is much smarter than those we have now. They have highly effective navigation and propulsion systems for ease of placement, and can return to earth on their own without adding to Earth’s orbiting space junk colonies.

Each satellite can deliver a space shade cluster capable of covering huge areas with reflective lightweight fabric that can be repositioned to precisely control the amount of solar radiation reaching the earth. With space shades that we can easily move and control, we can accurately regulate how much heat our atmosphere absorbs from the sun.

Nanosatellite Launchers are under development by NASA

Space shades don’t solve all our problems. We need to stop polluting our soil, water and air while cleaning up the mess we’ve already made.  Nanosatellite delivered space shades can give us the time we need to recover from our ongoing climate change disaster. Perhaps this will become a major step in planetary weather control. The first flight of NASA’s Nanosatellite Launch Adapter System took place in November 2013.

 

How is a Quantum Computer different from yours?

NASA Quantum Computer Different
New NASA Quantum Computer Different!

How is a Quantum computer different from the computers we use today? They’re much faster, more complex and far more expensive.

Multi-state structure supports more adaptable algorithms

Quantum computing is based on a non-binary system where an atomic piece of data – like the bit – can have any possible number of states, rather than a simple 0 or 1. Quantum atomic data is called a qubit and its structure is somewhat like that of a molecule. This is significant because it enables us to represent and process massive complex data more effectively.

Data structured in this unique way can help us understand complex information that is difficult and unruly to work with even on the largest super computers. A topological approach based on data features can make representation intuitive, thus enabling us to extract valuable knowledge from huge data sets with elegance and simplicity.

What kind of outcomes can be expected from this revolutionary type of computing?

The Institute for Advanced Study advises that quantum computers would likely prove useful for needle in the haystack problems, completing them in 1 thousandth of the time a conventional search might take.

A quantum computer can be in multiple states at the same time. This enables parallel processing without parallel processors. It sounds fast and effective, but the problem arises in accessing the results. Why? Because by accessing just a single result the others disappear. Quantum interference solves this problem by combining multiple results into meaningful and measurable data.

Is a Quantum Computer different or better?

Quantum computers are expected to revolutionize artificial intelligence, transportation, space exploration, medicine and the development of pharmaceuticals, but they won’t be cheap. The price tag is not within the realm of most consumers or small businesses.

In 2014 Time Magazine discussed the $10 million cost of the first quantum computer. It was built by the Canadian Company D-Wave, in collaboration with the CIA, Jeff Bezos of Amazon and NASA. These colossal data users were the perfect partners because of the massive amounts of data they process.

A quantum computer may  be in your future if you use Amazon products, use any kind of transportation or appreciate space research and technology.

Linda Kaidan